Fiduciary Responsibility Essay

Fiduciary Responsibility Essay

Research the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Pub.L. 107–204, 116 Stat. 745, enacted July 30, 2002), Richard Scrushy, and HealthSouth. What responsibility does the board hold in monitoring organizational activities, collectively and individually?

Fedex Strategy Management Essay

Fedex Strategy Management Essay

1. Markets: What markets (industries and geographic markets) the company will pursue in search of a high return on invested capital.

2. Unique Value (why we win with customers): What unique value to offer the customer in those markets (the firm’s value proposition : cost or differentiation).

3. Resources and Capabilities (how we deliver unique value): What resources (e.g., assets, brands, etc.) and capabilities (e.g., processes) will allow the firm to deliver a superior value proposition to customers.

4. Barriers to Imitation: How the company will prevent imitation of its strategy by competitors.

Managing Employee Relations

Create a 12-18 slide PowerPoint presentation describing HR best practices for managing employee relations.

Introduction

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 1: Define the employee relations function of an organization and human resources’ role in its development.
    • Identify HR’s role in building a diverse and inclusive workplace environment.
  • Competency 2: Analyze human resource practices that promote positive employee relations and legal compliance.
    • Describe best practices that promote positive employee relations and legal compliance.
  • Competency 3: Explain the components of managing employee performance for organizational and personal success.
    • Explain cultural, demographic, and social impacts on workplace performance management.
  • Competency 4: Describe the grievance process, dispute resolution options, and protection of employees from retaliation.
    • Explore best practices that effectively manage workplace disputes.
  • Competency 5: Examine the impact of labor unions on employee-employer relationships.
    • Examine best practices that improve relationships between unions and employees.
  • Competency 6: Communicate professionally with all stakeholders.
    • Describe communication strategies for explaining and implementing workplace best practices.
    • Write in a clear, well-organized manner with the required number of resources to support a central idea, with no technical writing errors, as expected of a business professional.

For this assessment, examine common HR practices affecting employee relations and explain how you will apply them to your current organization. If you are not currently employed, select a former employer and adapt those practices to that organization. Include the following in your PowerPoint presentation, using detailed presenter notes:

  • Describe best practices that promote positive employee relations and legal compliance.
    • Identify five HR practices, including one ADR technique and one labor relations practice.
    • Identify employment laws and regulations that may impact the best practices.
  • Identify HR’s role in building a diverse and inclusive workplace environment.
  • Explain cultural, demographic, and social impacts on performance management.
  • Explore best practices that effectively manage workplace disputes.
  • Examine best practices that improve relationships between unions and employees.
    • How do these practices promote HR as a strategic employee relations partner?
  • Describe communication strategies for explaining and implementing workplace best practices.
    • What messages could reflect an organization’s commitment to positive employee relations?

Additional Requirements

Your assessment should meet the following requirements:

  • Length: 12–18 PowerPoint slides, including title and reference slides.
    • Select a PowerPoint slide template appropriate for a professional presentation.
    • Include the content of the slides as well as the supporting narrative in the speaker’s notes.
    • Be sure slide content supports your main points and ideas.
    • Do not overbuild your slides; information that supports what you are saying should appear at the lower portion of each slide as notes.
    • Note: Save your finished PowerPoint presentation in Notes view as a PDF. Instead of File>Save As, use File>Print>Adobe PDF. Look for the Settings dropdown menu to change it from slides to Notes Pages. Be sure you can see both the slides and your notes in the preview of your saved file. Upload only the PDF to this assessment.
  • Written communication: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly and professional. Your writing should be:
    • Concise and logically organized.
    • Free of errors in grammar and mechanics.
  • Validation and support: Use 5–6 relevant and credible scholarly or professional resources to support your work.
  • APA formatting: Format all citations and references in accordance with current APA guidelines.

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 1: Define the employee relations function of an organization and human resources’ role in its development.
    • Identify HR’s role in building a diverse and inclusive workplace environment.
  • Competency 2: Analyze human resource practices that promote positive employee relations and legal compliance.
    • Describe best practices that promote positive employee relations and legal compliance.
  • Competency 3: Explain the components of managing employee performance for organizational and personal success.
    • Explain cultural, demographic, and social impacts on workplace performance management.
  • Competency 4: Describe the grievance process, dispute resolution options, and protection of employees from retaliation.
    • Explore best practices that effectively manage workplace disputes.
  • Competency 5: Examine the impact of labor unions on employee-employer relationships.
    • Examine best practices that improve relationships between unions and employees.
  • Competency 6: Communicate professionally with all stakeholders.
    • Describe communication strategies for explaining and implementing workplace best practices.
    • Write in a clear, well-organized manner with the required number of resources to support a central idea, with no technical writing errors, as expected of a business professional.

Alternative Dispute Resolution and Union Involvement

Write a 6-9 page three-part written analysis of workplace investigations, dispute resolution processes, and the impact of unions on alternative dispute processes.

Introduction

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 4: Describe the grievance process, dispute resolution options, and protection of employees from retaliation.
    • Analyze processes and key issues for conducting a legal workplace investigation.
    • Compare alternative dispute resolution processes.
  • Competency 5: Examine the impact of labor unions on employee-employer relationships.
    • Assess the impact of unions on the alternative dispute resolution process.
  • Competency 6: Communicate professionally with all stakeholders.
    • Write in a clear, well-organized manner with the required number of resources to support a central idea, with no technical writing errors, as expected of a business professional.

Preparation

The following resource is required to complete Part 1 of the assessment.

For this assessment, analyze the value of efficient workplace investigations, effective alternative dispute resolution processes, and the impact unions have on alternate dispute resolutions (ADRs).

Part 1: Hostile Work Environment Investigation

Analyze processes and key issues for conducting a legal workplace investigation.

  • Read the Sexual Harassment Workplace Scenarios linked in the Resources under the Required Resources heading and select one scenario to respond to the following:
    • Brainstorm some investigatory questions you would like to ask the employees involved.
    • Discuss if the employee’s actions arise to the level of hostile workplace harassment.
    • Explain how the interview questions you would like to ask would be legally compliant with a hostile work environment investigation.

Part 2: Alternative Dispute Resolutions

Compare alternative dispute resolutions.

  • Respond to the following questions, using your current organization for context, if possible, so that you can include your insights into organizational culture and norms.
    • What are the three most important things you would be concerned about if charged with creating a new ADR process for an organization?
    • How would you ensure that employees would not face retaliation?
    • How would you compare ADR practices, including negotiation, mediation, and arbitration?
    • In what ways are these practices similar and different?

Part 3: Different Unions, Different Issues

Assess the impact of unions on the ADR process.

  • Respond to the following questions, using your current organization for context or another organization that is unionized:
    • How might having a union involved help or hinder the process for investigations?
    • Does the issue change with the presence of a union?
    • What are the benefits to the organization and employee for having a union?

Additional Requirements

Your assessment should meet the following requirements:

  • Length: Your analysis should consist of three distinct sections. Use headings to organize each section of 2–3 double-spaced pages. Include a references page at the end.
  • Written communication: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly and professional. Your writing should be:
    • Concise and logically organized.
    • Free of errors in grammar and mechanics.
  • Validation and support: Use 3–4 relevant and credible scholarly or professional resources to support your work.
  • APA formatting: Format all citations and references in accordance with current APA guidelines.

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 4: Describe the grievance process, dispute resolution options, and protection of employees from retaliation.
    • Analyze processes and key issues for conducting a legal workplace investigation.
    • Compare alternative dispute resolution processes.
  • Competency 5: Examine the impact of labor unions on employee-employer relationships.
    • Assess the impact of unions on the alternative dispute resolution process.
  • Competency 6: Communicate professionally with all stakeholders.
    • Write in a clear, well-organized manner with the required number of resources to support a central idea, with no technical writing errors, as expected of a business professional.

Managing Performance Improvement

Develop a 5-6 page performance improvement plan that includes legal compliance and risk awareness for a selected HR scenario or your own workplace.

Introduction

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 2: Analyze human resource practices that promote positive employee relations and legal compliance.
    • Assess legal compliance and awareness of legal risk for the selected HR scenario.
  • Competency 3: Explain the components of managing employee performance for organizational and personal success.
    • Describe the goal of the conversation for the selected HR scenario.
    • Articulate personal bias or preconceived assumptions for the selected HR scenario.
    • Develop best practices for delivering performance feedback to employees.
  • ​Competency 6: Communicate professionally with all stakeholders.
    • Summarize the selected HR scenario.
    • Write in a clear, well-organized manner with the required number of resources to support a central idea, with no technical writing errors, as expected of a business professional.

Preparation

For this assessment, assume the role of an HR specialist and develop a performance improvement plan. You may either select one scenario from the Assessment Scenarios [PDF] or you may choose to use your own workplace example.

Requirements

Based on the information provided in either the selected scenario or a workplace example, prepare a plan using subheadings to organize the following assessment requirements:

  • Summarize the selected HR scenario. What is the issue to be addressed by the employer with the employee?
  • Describe the goal of the conversation for the selected HR scenario. What outcomes are you seeking?
  • Articulate personal bias or preconceived assumptions for the selected HR scenario. How would you try to overcome these biases or assumptions, if faced with these feelings in the workplace?
  • Develop best practices for delivering performance feedback to employees. Identify at least three best practices that are relevant to the selected scenario.
  • Assess legal compliance and awareness of legal risk for the selected HR scenario. What actions would you take to be compliant with the ADA, FMLA, ADEA, or other relevant legislation?

​Additional Requirements

Your assessment should meet the following requirements:

  • Length: 5–6 double-spaced pages, including a references page.
  • Written communication: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly and professional. Your writing should be:
    • Concise and logically organized.
    • Free of errors in grammar and mechanics.
  • Validation and support: Use 3–4 relevant and credible scholarly or professional resources to support your work.
  • APA formatting: Format all citations and references in accordance with current APA guidelines.

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 2: Analyze human resource practices that promote positive employee relations and legal compliance.
    • Assess legal compliance and awareness of legal risk for the selected HR scenario.
  • Competency 3: Explain the components of managing employee performance for organizational and personal success.
    • Describe the goal of the conversation for the selected HR scenario.
    • Articulate personal bias or preconceived assumptions for the selected HR scenario.
    • Develop best practices for delivering performance feedback to employees.
  • ​Competency 6: Communicate professionally with all stakeholders.
    • Summarize the selected HR scenario.
    • Write in a clear, well-organized manner with the required number of resources to support a central idea, with no technical writing errors, as expected of a business professional.

Recovery Strategies

Write a 2-3 page article review in which you discuss the legal issues brought against an employer and how the organization managed to recover from the charges brought against it.

Introduction

An organization’s public image is very important. The values and missions of the company serve as a statement to the public regarding how it seeks to operate. The company wants to avoid negative publicity about employment-related legal issues, like discrimination or harassment, because it can have a damaging effect on the organization’s reputation. When this occurs, HR practitioners and managers need to identify an effective recovery strategy as soon as possible. This is important, because the company needs to limit any negative exposure, but also to ensure that the organization is operating according to its values and missions.

Conduct research using the Capella University Library, a trusted Internet resource, or a business magazine or journal to find an article on the topic of a company experiencing legal issues related to workplace discrimination, unfair labor practices, or unethical behavior. This source should also describe the organization’s approach in managing and recovering from the charges brought against it.

Then, write a 2–3-page article review in which you discuss the following:

  • Identify the legal issues and the charges brought against the company.
  • Describe the organization’s approach to managing and recovering from the charges brought against it.
  • Include your analysis of the organization’s approach to managing and recovering from the charges. Identify whether you would or would not have handled the recovery using the same strategy, and include a supporting rationale.

Additional Requirements

  • Written Communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
  • APA Formatting: Resources and citations should be formatted according to current APA style and formatting guidelines.
  • Font and Font Size: Times New Roman, 12 point, double-spaced. Use Microsoft Word to complete the assessment.
  • Length: A minimum of two pages, excluding title page and reference page (150–300 words per question).

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 4: Implement the mission, vision, and values to impact organizational culture.
    • Identify the legal issues.
    • Discuss the effectiveness of the organization’s approach to recovery.
  • Competency 5: Create strategies for recovery from exposure to liabilities.
    • Describe the organization’s strategies for recovery from exposure to liabilities.
  • Competency 6: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of the human resource profession.
    • Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of the human resource profession.

Nursing Lifespan Interviews

Nursing Lifespan Interviews

STEP 1: Interview an adult, at least above age 25, about an adolescent. Ask this person to reflect on their adolescent years and to describe a typical day in detail. What did they do? Who were they with? Was there something else they wished they could be doing? What was expected of them? What were their dreams for the future? Prompt the person to describe what is/was going on in their culture around the time of their adolescence.

Interviewee’s first name (or pseudonym):
Sex:
Age:
Education status:
Occupation:
Marital status:
Number and ages of children, if applicable:
Answer yes or no to the following questions:

Adolescents should spend more time in school. ________. Additional notes, if any:
Adolescents should have to work for their extra money. ________. Additional notes, if any:
Adolescents should be required to do volunteer community service. ________. Additional notes, if any:
Adolescents should spend two years in the military before they go to college or begin working. ________. Additional notes, if any:
Most adolescents are sexually active. ___________. Additional notes, if any:
Adolescents should be given birth control to prevent unwanted pregnancies. _____________. Additional notes, if any:
Adolescents account for most of the crime in my community. __________. Additional notes, if any:
Most adolescents waste a lot of time. ____________. Additional notes, if any:
Most adolescents are careless drivers. ___________. Additional notes, if any:
I remember adolescence as the best time of my life. ___________. Additional notes, if any:
Many adolescents use drugs. _________. Additional notes, if any:
Adolescents just delay growing up by going to college. ____________. Additional notes, if any:
Ask the following questions:

At what age do you think adolescents should be allowed to drink alcoholic beverages? Why?
Do you think that adolescence is harder or easier than when you were that age?
What advice would you give to your 16-year old self?
STEP 2: Interview an adolescent or teenager between the ages of 13-19, with permission from them (and their parent or guardian if younger than 18).

Interviewee’s first name (or pseudonym):
Sex:
Age:
Grade/education level:

Answer yes or no to the following questions:

Should teens have to work for the things they want? _______. Additional notes, if any:
Should teens be required to do volunteer community service? _________. Additional notes, if any:
Have you ever been bullied? ____________________________________________________. Additional notes, if any:
What is an appropriate age to become sexually active? ______________________________________. Additional notes, if any:
Should teens have free access to birth control? _______________. Additional notes, if any:
Do you think that teens account for most of the crime in your community? _____________. Additional notes, if any:
Do you think most teens are careless drivers? ___________. Additional notes, if any:
Do you feel this is the best time of your life? _________. Additional notes, if any:
Have you ever skipped class? __________________. Additional notes, if any:
Have you ever used drugs? ____________________. Additional notes, if any:
Have you ever snuck out of the house? ___________. Additional notes, if any:
Ask the following questions:

Whom do you turn to for advice?
What law is your peer group most likely to break?
What goals do you have for your education?
At what age do you think people should be allowed to drink alcoholic beverages? Why?
Do you think that adolescence is harder or easier than when your parents were your age? Why?
After the interviews, write a paper 500 to 750 words summarizing the interview and your thoughts. Please include title page, references, paper should be done in APA format.

Gerontology Norman from the film On Golden Pond

Gerontology Norman from the film On Golden Pond

Recall the character of Norman from the film On Golden Pond that you watched for the previous lesson. Using information from this unit’s readings and study notes, write a 3-5 page paper in which you:

1.Describe Norman’s human environment.

2.Select the following theories:( Activity) and use it to describe how Norman and his human environment interact.

3. Explain why you chose the theory you used to analyze Norman’s environment.

4. Tell whether you feel that the theory you have used is useful and credible.

the writing should be based on the film called “on Golden Pond” the link for the movie

or in youtube

focused on applying major theories of aging from biology, psychology, and sociology to interpret how people age in United States society.

lecture Notes
HOW RELATIONSHIPS CHANGE WITH AGE
You have learned how Person-Environment Fit determines personal competence. This lesson examines the environmental piece of that equation—specifically, its human component. Gerontologists have studied how older individuals interact with the human environment, and have come up with a number of descriptions of what happens. Some of these are described below.

Role theory describes society’s expectations about how people should behave and what they should do. These expectations are based on a wide variety of factors, including age. A role is like a part a person plays, with a script that is written jointly by society and the person who takes on the roles (in some cases the two negotiate the details, in others behavioral rules are black and white, and anybody who breaks them is considered an “oddball”—or, perhaps even mentally ill or a criminal). The pressure put on people to conform to expectations is part of the process of socialization.

Some societies and cultures have more rigid roles than others. Roles may include those of male, female, student, parent, employee, businesswoman, husband, wife, son, patient, doctor, etc. Obviously, most of us hold a number of roles at any given time; some, we hold for a lifetime, some are brief, and others change over years. Many roles are associated with a certain age or stage of life, or “age-graded.” Age-grading is the expectation that people will adjust their behavior by modifying, adding or dropping roles to match what others believe they should do at a given age. For example, a 14-year-old girl is, in most Western cultures, considered to be too young to be a mother; in other cultures, however, motherhood may be within the age-normative expectation for that age group. In the classic picture of age-grading, roles are added gradually as we grow up, and increase in number throughout our middle-years. At some point, role loss may occur as children leave home, we retire from work, family members and friends die, and some hobbies and interests are abandoned. Theoretically, if society pushes an older person to drop unapproved roles, and no new roles are added, they can be left with only one role— “Old Person.”

There are several other theories about how and why people change their relationships with others as they age. The earliest (and most commonly applied) include Activity, Disengagement, and Continuity theories. Each of these is briefly described below. In addition to these three theories, a number of others have been proposed, and are described in your text. You will notice that some of these theories focus on individual behavior while others focus on social systems.

Activity theory sees age-related changes as leading us to adjust to the loss of old ties as we age. It says that normal adaptation includes finding new, and perhaps even a greater number, of interests to replace the dropped ones. New activities are chosen freely and can include volunteering, church involvement, and fun leisure pursuits like traveling or golf (perhaps even bungee jumping). This may explain why some retired people say that they are busier in retirement than they were while working. You will notice that activity theory emphasizes that the responsibility for staying active rests with the individual rather than resulting from of a push from society. Role theory, on the other hand, describes society as the party that calls the shots.

Like Role theory, Disengagement theory describes the loss of roles as a process that is enforced by society. As one after another role is lost, power is gradually transferred from older to younger individuals. Disengagement leads older adults to move gradually into passive roles with fewer and more superficial interactions with younger members of society. The positive consequences of disengagement, for both the individual and society as a whole, is that the elder gets to take it easy and prepare for death, and that valuable resources and responsibilities get passed on to the new generation. There is no research to support the idea of Disengagement as a normal stage of life. Unfortunately, some people still think that it is normal for older adults to retreat into their good memories of the past, and withdraw from the world. Disengagement, as a picture of “normal aging” should be actively rejected. In fact, an older person who looks and acts increasingly disengaged should be assumed to have a health problem that needs diagnosis and treatment.

Finally, Continuity theory was developed to reflect findings of the Kansas City Longitudinal Studies. This research revealed that people do not change dramatically with age (no surprise, as we found earlier that personality does not usually change dramatically either). But, critics of this theory note that it “overlooks the role of external social factors in modifying the aging process” (Hooyman & Kiyak, 2011, p. 289). While it is reasonable to assume that society changes its demands and expectations constantly, and that people must adapt to those changes, we have pretty good evidence that aging individuals seem to maintain their identities as they adapt. A comprehensive theory would have to look at both sides of the equation. Until we have a perfect theory that explains everything, the existing theories are very useful tools that stimulate us to observe more closely and ask important questions.

THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT
The human environment includes family, friends, neighbors and members of the larger community. Your text offers detailed descriptions of how relationships within each of these groups influence aging, and is influenced by its aging members. We will review some of the high points in these notes.

Family
We begin life within our family of origin, joining its newest generation. From this background, many of us move out to form a nuclear family group, usually in partnership with another adult, and a third generation may grow out of the partnership. With the unfolding of new generations, new relationships and obligations of importance to individuals and society are forged.

Kin relationships in modern America are shaped by our history as an immigrant nation, in that most of us tend to have fewer layers of kinship recognized as “close family” than those in older cultures. Riley and Riley (1996) add the following elements to the description of the “classic” American family: 1) because parents and children are living much longer, they are closer to being equal in status; 2) property transfer is no longer the main reason for formal ties between generations; 3) most older adults are quite healthy and independent; 4) modern families are becoming more and more diverse in age because of the creation of blended families through divorce and remarriage, and; 5) modern life offers many alternative types of relationships that compete with the traditional one of parent-child.

It is important to remember that, even though American culture seems to shape most of our lives, many cultural variations exist and that, within these variations, the notion of “family” and quality of family relationships differ widely from what is described as the American “norm.” In fact, it has not been uncommon in the U.S, since its beginnings, to see cultural variations within the generations of one family, or parts of one community. Most often, the younger generation is seeking to move away from family traditions and integrate into the larger culture while the older generation is trying to maintain it. You can reference specific facts about some of the major U.S. “minority” cultures in your text.

Spouse and partner relationships are built on love. Sternberg (1986) researched people’s idea of love and how it is manifested. Based on his research, he developed a theory of love based on three components: 1) passion—an intense physical attraction; 2 intimacy—the feeling that one can share thoughts and actions with the other; and, 3) commitment—the willingness to stay with that person through good and bad times. Based on these components, he identified seven forms of love:

1. Liking: Intimacy is present, but no commitment or passion

2. Infatuation: Lots of passion, no intimacy or commitment

3. Empty love: Commitment only

4. Romantic love: intimacy and passion, but no commitment

5. Fatuous love: passion only

6. Companionate love: intimacy and commitment, no passion

7. Consummate love: all three components are present (the ideal)

Increasing numbers of younger adults are choosing not to marry early, and some never marry. Although men marry later than women, the age at which both marry today is higher than it has been in recent history, with the average age of men being 26.3 and women 25.1 for first marriages occurring during the year 2000. The number of cohabiting couples at all ages has increased significantly in the past few decades. Cohabitation of older adult couples is often motivated by financial and family concerns, since a deceased husband’s pension often provides for his widow only as long as she remains unmarried, and because some parents bow to their adult children’s disapproval of their remarriage.

Gay or lesbian partners also form partnerships, and experience similar patterns of mutual support and satisfaction as do heterosexual couples. Despite the legality of same-sex marriages, they often have difficulties with adoption of children, inheritance, legal guardianship, and ability to make health-care related decisions for each other in health crises. Mourning the loss of a partner is also more difficult, as some in our society may not accept the closeness of these partnerships.

Maturity of both partners at the time of marriage and a similarity of values and interests lead to satisfaction. Satisfaction with love relationships is highest at the beginning of the relationship and after retirement, with the rock-bottom tending to occur at midlife. Divorce is the legal dissolution that ends a marriage, and the divorce rate among older adults has gone up recently; whether this is a cohort effect or merely a greater overall acceptance of divorce than was true in the past is unknown.

Death of a partner occurs for women more frequently than it does for men, as women tend to marry older men, and to live longer. Men who experience divorce or widowhood remarry at a significantly higher rate than women do. The average age of widowhood is 66 for women and 69 for men. Considering that women live about 5 years longer than men, and tend not to remarry after the death of a spouse, most of them are widows for about 15 years. Among the oldest-old, widows outnumber widowers 5:1, and that proportion is double in women of color because they are widowed earlier—this is due to a lower average life expectancy for men of color.

Many Adult Children continue to receive financial support, and most obtain emotional support from their parents after they leave home. In fact, many adult children return there when circumstances require them to seek additional assistance. After adult children are stable and on their own, most maintain frequent communication with their parents over the years, and often despite geographical separation. Eventually, most parents turn to their adult children when they need support or care.

Thanks to our increasing life-span, families can include as many as four or five generations, with older adults sometimes caring for their even older parents. Next to spouses, adult children provide the most care to older adults. It is notable that the financial value of informal care-giving in the United States, most of it given by spouses and adult children, is valued at $200 billion dollars a year (Hooyman & Kiyak, 2011).

Not only do children receive assistance from their parents, and provide for them, but an increasing number of elders are responsible for their grandchildren in “skipped generation households.” It has been estimated that 800,000 older adults are doing this. Of these, 47% are of European-American, 36% of African-American, and 15% are Hispanic-American. This is a particularly stressful job, since there is little legal protection, and often limited financial support for grandparents who must navigate health care and school issues for their charges. Fortunately, a 2003 Supreme Court decision has supported the awarding of foster care benefits to grandparents (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2005).

Grandchildren: With increasing life-spans, not only can one be a grandparent for 30-40 years, but also a great-grandparent. Some grandparents are formal and distant, and others take on direct parental responsibilities, but most fall somewhere in between the two extremes. The high value many grandparents put on their relationships with grandchildren has been explained by the “Generational-Stake Hypothesis” which explains that, although grandchildren are eagerly looking ahead to building their own place in the world, grandparents see that generation, and those to follow, as their legacy. An interesting idea, don’t you think?

Sibling relationships can last for a lifetime. Siblings share family history, and have a genetic structure more similar to each others’ than anybody else can have (even a parent). For these, and many other reasons, this relationship is special. The strength of sibling relationships varies with stage of life and gender. In younger years, siblings may be rivals or hold grudges about past squabbles, but these tend to be forgotten with age. Gender influences the strength of relationships, with two sisters being the closest, brother-sister pairs next, and brothers being the least close. Relationships tend to intensify among siblings at crucial times in their life histories—marriages, births, and death of their parents and spouses, when support can come from the sharing of common memories.

Friends
Friends are important to all aging adults, but particularly those who live alone. Friendships tend to be a place where women share primarily emotional content, and men share primarily interests and common activities. Interestingly, women tend to have more friends than men do, and many married men perceive their wives to be their “best friends.” People tend to have more friendships in their younger years, and these friends are often selected because they connect individuals to ideas, places, and new opportunities. By old age, many friendships have been lost due to death, or changes in interest or location, and fewer new ones are made. But friends in the older years are very important, and most people over age 85 still actively maintain friendships. Old friends tend to have been around for awhile and are valued for being trustworthy and loyal. The main purpose of these friendships is to provide opportunities to bounce ideas off somebody who will not judge or misunderstand. Adult children offer support, but friends can do so without any motive other than mutual liking (and they remember events and ideas in the same context as the elder because they often come from the same cohort). This type of relationship provides a safe and gratifying outlet. Having close friends is important, and the presence of at least one friend in whom one can confide has been shown to predict a higher level of life satisfaction in older adults (Antonucci, 1985).

Neighborhoods
Neighborhoods represent the smallest level of community. Having close neighbors and frequent contact with them is particularly important if family ties are not strong, or if family is at a distance. Friendships can develop and bloom within neighborhoods, as well. This easily navigated space can also provide an opportunity for the older adult to be with people of various ages, including children, and share their wisdom and talents with others. Older adults seem to have varying ideas as to what type of neighborhood to choose. Some prefer a carefully planned and safely gated place where people are of similar ages to theirs, while most prefer mixed-age neighborhoods (AARP, 2001). Older adults tend to prefer to age in place, in homes where they have lived for years. Overall, 76% of older adults are satisfied with their neighborhoods, and even those in poorer quality neighborhoods report a 71% level of satisfaction (HUD, 1999).

THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL SUPPORT
The human environment is made up of social networks composed of people interacting with one another. The amount of interaction determines a person’s social integration. There are obvious benefits to being able to get help from other people. But there are more subtle benefits to two-way integration. We know that the process of giving and receiving assistance (reciprocity) is desirable for older adults and improves their function and self-esteem. Integration also makes social support available to older adults.

Unfortunately, some of the negative events that are normative (expected) for older adults also change network composition, thereby lessening contact with others. For example, couples seem to drift away when widowhood occurs, children may visit less frequently when older adults move into age-restricted housing, or if either adult children or the older parent makes a geographical move. It is also important to note that loss of ongoing contacts with groups that are oriented to higher levels of activity occurs when an older adult is homebound due to illness, or is no longer able to drive. In fact, even though less healthy elders probably need the benefits of greater social integration most, social selection seems to encourage healthier elders to join the most active groups and expand their networks, while their less healthy companions drop out of relationships that they cannot cope with.

Social support is defined by as occurring when an individual believes that one or more other people exist who would provide emotional, financial, and instrumental support. (Krause, 2001) We have already discussed the value of friendships, the importance of confidants, and how older adults benefit greatly from maintaining reciprocal relationships with others in their social environment. Social support is a very special kind of benefit related to, but not identical to other human contacts. In fact, it can come out of and occur along with additional benefits from relationships. Social support can help buffer normative events such as illness, widowhood, loss of employment, and the death of friends and family members that occur with aging. For example, Cobb (1976) found that social support from adult children reduced depressive symptoms in their older parents.

Social support has been shown to have two important specific effects: First, it has a direct effect of reducing stress—that is, a person can cope with a lot more stress without harm if there is also some social support available at the same time as the stress is bearing down; this applies to both physical and psychological stress. Amazingly, research has shown that people with severe asthma, for example, need fewer drugs to control their disease if they have social support available to them. Secondly, the presence of social support seems to have an indirect effect on health status by influencing people to follow through with health treatments that have been recommended.

Social support can also come from any other person in the human environment, including health care providers, and others including hairdressers, barbers, mail carriers, and other people with which one interacts with in the community. It is vitally important for people of all ages, but particularly for aging adults, to maintain social integration and its associated benefits.

Works Cited

AARP (2001).The 1999 national survey of sector 202 elderly housing. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute.

Antonucci, T.C. (1985). Personal characteristics, social support, and social behavior. In R.H.Binstock & E. Shanas (Eds.). Handbook of aging and the social sciences. (2nd ed.). (pp.94-128). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Cavanaugh, J. C., & Blanchard-Fields, F. (2006). Adult development and aging. (5th ed.) Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth.

Cobb S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38, 300-314.

Hooyman, N.R. & Kiyak, H.A. (2011). Social gerontology. (9th ed.) Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Krause N. (2001). Social support. In: Binstock RL, George LK, editors. Handbook of aging and the social sciences. 5th ed. Academic Press; San Diego, CA. pp. 273–294.

Riley, M.W., & Riley, J.W. AJR. (1996). Generational relations: A future perspective. In T.K. Hareven (Ed.). Aging and Generational Relations: Life-Course and Cross-Cultural Perspectives (pp.283-291). New York: Aldine deGruyter.

Sternberg, R.J. (1986). A triangular theory of love. Psychological Review, 93, 119-135.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Office of Policy Development and Research. (1999). Housing our Elders. Washington, DC.

Reflective Case Study Report in Management

Reflective Case Study Report in Management

Using your knowledge and skills built from across the module, the task for this assessment is to undertake a critical review of a project and produce a reflective project management case study report. Details of areas to cover are outlined below.

Bioethics in Healthcare Terri Schiavo case

Bioethics in Healthcare Terri Schiavo case

Overview:
Healthcare professionals provide support throughout the cycle of life, from birth to death. They have an obligation to provide humane and compassionate care to patients while adhering to their specific field’s code of ethics. Sometimes, healthcare professionals are privy to discussions between family members regarding end-of-life issues. In some instances, a healthcare facility may be in charge of providing information about advance directives to patients. Healthcare professionals should calibrate their own moral beliefs to align with their ethical and legal obligations. By studying issues contained within real-life cases, healthcare professionals can come to terms with their beliefs and obligations relative to end-of-life issues.
• Analyze bioethical issues faced by various healthcare professionals for their impact on decision-making.
In this project, you will analyze the Terri Schiavo case through the lens of the bioethical issue(s) related to the case. You will analyze the case to address what the bioethical issue is and what role end-of-life issues, such as self-determination and advanced directives, played in the case. Using your analysis, you will determine how this bioethical issue impacted the decisions made by the healthcare professionals involved in the case.
Your essay must address the following critical elements:
I. Introduction: Describe the provided case, including information on the stakeholders involved, the bioethical issue, and the time period of the incident that occurred.
II. Bioethical Analysis: Analyze the bioethical issue for the role end-of-life issues played in the case. Be sure to use appropriate terminology and support with secondary research.
III. Conclusion: Describe how the bioethical issue influenced the decisions of healthcare professionals involved in the case. Be sure to use specific examples.

Resources:

 Fremgen, B. F. (2019). Medical Law and Ethics (6th Edition). Pearson Education (US). https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/books/9780135414446

Chapter 11, the Terri Schiavo case in Chapter 13, Appendix A in the textbook and reading resources (below):
Textbook: Medical Law and Ethics, Chapter 11, Chapter 13: “Terri Schiavo, The Face That Moved a Nation” case
on page 314, and Appendix A Chapter 11 guiding questions:
o What are the main bioethical issues that modern physicians and healthcare professionals face today?
o What are some ethical decision-making models that can be used to support ethical dilemmas?
Appendix A guiding questions:
• What is the Hippocratic Oath?
• What is the Code of Ethics for Nurses?
• What is the code of ethics for medical assistants (from the AAMA)?

 Video: Terri Schiavo Documentary: The Case’s Enduring Legacy