Module IV Part II

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Module IV Part II

1) (A) The Goldstein’s canal ray experiment

Goldstein’s canal experiment is an experiment that was conducted by a German scientist in the year 1886 which brought about the discovery of another subatomic particle known as a proton. The scientist, Eugene Goldstein applied a high voltage discharge across a perforated cathode towards the anode where some light could be seen illuminating from the holes on the cathode in the opposite direction of the charge applied which was red on the fluorescent tube.

The rays that were observed moving from the anode through the holes on the cathode were discovered to be positively charged hence the ability to move in the opposite direction thus the name ‘canal rays’. This led to the discovery of the protons from the anode. He also realized that the charge by the mass ratio of the protons was different for different elements while the charge per mass ratio of the electrons was the same.

Rutherford who had discovered the existence of a nucleus was able to know of the existence of a proton by bombarding different elements like oxygen or aluminum with the high energy alpha particles which would result in the disintegration and production of positively charged particles. The Alpha particles that were also discovered by Rutherford and give positive integer led to the conclusion of the emitted positive particles to be protons.

Neutron discovery by James Chadwick was done in the 1930s where he observed a very high penetration of a particle through a lead shield. He bombarded a beryllium particle with an alpha particle. The experiment gave a particle of almost the same mass as a proton, which was first thought to be a gamma particle, but it had no charge and its rate of penetration was higher than gamma particle. Thus the experiment brought forth the neutron particle.

B) Apply the scientific method to Chadwick’s experiment. Describe Chadwick’s experiment, conclusion, etc. according to the scientific “Algorithms”


Chadwick with the discovery of a proton realized that there was another particle in the nucleus other than a proton Question and research

Chadwick entailed finding the other particle by determining the characteristics of the new particle and how it differs from the available particles

Hypothesis and prediction

He determined the rate at which it could penetrate, and the charge it carries which would differ from the properties of the other particles


Chadwick produced the particle by bombarding a beryllium particle with an alpha particle and let it pass through a lead shield


After trials and tests, he realized that the particle had no charge, had the same mass as a proton, and could easily penetrate a lead shield hence was proven to be a neutron

3a) Alpha decay

It is a radioactive process in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle and itself is transformed into another atomic nucleus. It is caused by the columbic repulsion between the alpha particle and the nucleus constitutes.

b)Beta decay

When an atomic nucleus transforms due to too many protons or neutrons then a beta particle is mitted and a neutron or proton decays to an electron or an antineutron

c)Gamma decay

This type of decay underdoes in the nucleus where some form of energy is produced but no particle is emitted

d) Nuclear half-life

It is the amount of time that is required for nuclei to transform to other nuclei by producing a particle and some form of energy

4. To balance the fission equation two particles of 1???? particle be required on the gap. This is because during fission a large nucleus is split into a small nucleus releasing some energy and neutron particles hence only the mass sum of the nucleus is affected and not the atomic sum.

Works cited

“Anode Rays Experiment by Sir Eugen Goldstein / Anode Ray Tube Experiment / Discovery of Proton.”, Accessed 14 Apr. 2021.“UCSB Science Line.”, 2018,“Home – TUM FRMII.”, Accessed 14 Apr. 2021.‌

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