Motivation is the process, which enhance the performance


A Research Paper



Table of Contents

TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc392627646” Introduction PAGEREF _Toc392627646 h 3

HYPERLINK l “_Toc392627647” Objective PAGEREF _Toc392627647 h 4

HYPERLINK l “_Toc392627648” Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc392627648 h 4

HYPERLINK l “_Toc392627649” Research Analysis PAGEREF _Toc392627649 h 5

HYPERLINK l “_Toc392627650” Research findings PAGEREF _Toc392627650 h 6

HYPERLINK l “_Toc392627651” Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc392627651 h 7

HYPERLINK l “_Toc392627652” References PAGEREF _Toc392627652 h 9

IntroductionMotivation is the process, which enhance the performance. Motivation can be defined as the state of internal activation in the individuals, which gives rise to a chain reaction based on their needs and satisfaction. (Bindra & Stewart, 1971).

Motivation can influence the activity of the individual person, which immediately reflects in the performance. This means; someone’s willingness and behaviour is the way one can be classified as if they are interested at all to do something or to go through a process. Volition is the word that again symbolizes if anyone is keen to do something, which they might have ignored due to some other reason. There are some reasons why someone would get motivated by him/herself. There is a word “intrinsic motivation”; it says someone can get motivated by himself or herself, this is a sort that someone can notice by observing someone’s special notifications, the notification might include.

What excites him/her or what is the mean by which he/she does some sort of personal enjoyment.

Personal interest; what exactly does attract him/her, the topic which arouses his/her curiosity.

Pleasure is an important as this helps understanding the motivational factor related to it; this can prove itself to be useful tool that helps understanding the pleasure factor for someone.

The work motivation can be achieved in two ways, self motivation and management efforts and stimulation. Motivating some particular employee in front of hundreds of employee can make others think of a better performance as to get that bonus next time and as we know a healthy competition can improve the inner situation of any organisation, and in schools; the same can be applied to students again, giving a particular student an upper grade will make certain students think about how that particular kid get to have those kind of grade, and students does have a mentality of sharing grades with one another, and if this does happen there a healthy competition will grow and with a positive attitude we can think of a better result next time (Wlodkowski, 1982).

Motivation has always been one factor that can be a useful one; as we know the meaning of motivation means to motivate, for fulfilling the desired needs at any particular point of time. In organisations like any other, be it a business organisation or any educational institution or any other, worker/students get motivated with the help of different type of tools; motivational tools might include things or certain behaviour that can make someone do something with a huge level enthusiasm. Motivational tools might include:

Bonus: companies give their workers bonus/perks/ advance salaries or anything that can make the employee as they will think as the company does think a lot about them and they are being considered.

Points: Students in schools and any other educational institutions get to have some sort of grades and other points as their advantage, which motivates them to work harder for the next time.

Giving monetary bonus or marks beyond expectation can make someone happy. Those are not just some money or some greater grade, they are marks; they are reason for someone being happy and that is the reason they are being given those number or monetary rewards (Satinoff & Teitelbaum, 1983).

One can get to study in this topic is, how someone can motivate their associates and other who are related to them. There are several kinds of communication, to be particular there is one that says, intrapersonal communication; this is sort of communication one dose by self and does not communicate with others; this is a quite personal thing. This intrapersonal communication can be of great use with an essence of motivation. “No one can help someone until the person himself gets to know him/herself”. This says, the way one might motivate them is the best; as a person would know the best and worst part of him/her and thus would motivate to do certain things.

ObjectiveThe primary objective of the overall research study is to determine the level of the significance of several motivation factors for the improved performance of the human being in their respective life. The study also helps to identify the overall impact of the motivational aspect on the performance of the individual.

HypothesisThe word motivation can be defined as Guay said 2010, the reasons underlying for the upcoming behaviour. The definitions made by different citers “as Gredler, Broussard and Garrison from the year of 2004” if mashed up, can be defined broadly as the reasons and attributes that can make us or people to do or do not to do certain things. Intrinsic motivation is the motivation that can be observed by noticing the personal interests, pleasure factors and other, which gives enjoyment to a particular person. As Deci and others observed and said as intrinsic motivation has an important role to play as in times of motivating certain people or a group of people. Intrinsic motivation can energize and retains its effect through certain level of fluctuations in the level of satisfaction. Studies say that people can adopt certain level of involvement which is huge and that in only because of that motivation intrinsic to be specific. If with go with past results and what did traditional educators say, the result would come in front as intrinsic motivation has always been the effective one and results in a better output than the extrinsic motivation. Motivation can result in only good way and the quality of output that might come out would be a better one than the last one (Evans, 1975).

Research AnalysisAccording to Stipek , (1996), the early study of motivation stated was basically based over the concept of extrinsic motivation and reinforcements. The following literature, all sort of behaviour, which even including achievement was believed to be governed by reinforcement contingencies. B.F skinner was a proponent and he himself identified different sort of reinforces or forces that might have a potential of manipulating the behaviour of a particular person towards some sort of activity. Contingent defines the chances to a particular concerned subject. Positive reinforces or some sort of rewards, might be an outcome or consequences that puts a positive behaviour they were made contingent over. On the other hand the negative sort of reinforces are the outcomes which are the results of removing some stimulus or some sort of incentives or perks or anything might influence the worker or the employee in a positive way. Punishment is a factor that will never effect in a better way and will always result with negative outcome, as this will always reduce the quality and thus the outcome as well.

As we already have come across examples like teachers praising their students and employers praising their employees is the best way to express what exactly is praising with good and bad grades, good grade for good work and bad grades for bad works.

Freud for example, father of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, wrote that humans are motivated to act because of perceived internal imbalances in the body as Weiner said in the year of 1980. In other words, when the body is out of balance-say, it needs food- then it will act to correct the imbalance-by finding food. Moreover, while Freud says that the mind can influence the body’s actions- i.e. even if I’m hungry, I would not kill someone and take his sloppy Joe-he would say that the impetus for action is rooted in the desires of the body making them known through the unconscious rather than through an individual’s conscious thoughts (Levy, 1981).

Other research during this early period tries to use mathematical models to account for factors affecting a person’s motivation. If they could accurately identify these factors, these researchers argued, and then they could use these models to predict people’s behaviours (James, 1950). Lewin, for instance, developed something called “field theory” which suggest that all influences surrounding a certain goal either exert a positive valence that makes us want to pursue or approach the goal or a negative valence that makes us want to avoid pursuing it. Assign each a mathematical value and do the math and pretty soon you’ll be able to predict whether the goal gets attempted or not.

Another related strand of research on going at the time was “behaviourism;” if you’ve heard of the experiments with the slobbering dogs, this is it. Working with motions of “habit” and “volition” developed by James in the nineteenth century, researcher like Thorndike and Pavlov looked at how motivation could be controlled through an externally imposed system of stimulus and response according to Atkinson in the year of 1964. This research, in turn gave rise to the “behaviourist” models of skinner; the man who touted the superiority of drills and repetition in education (Evans, 1975).

Research findingsAtkinson’s “Achievement theory” for example, suggests that humans direct themselves to act on the basis of a desire to either “achieve success” or to “avoid failure” as Weiner said in the year of 1980. According to Dornyei as he described in the year of 2001, it suggests that people are motivated to act in so far as they believed that the outcome they will receive as a result of their action is both attainable and important to them. Goal theory which like expectancy-value theory is interested in the future worth of behaviour, looks at the ways in which goals are set and their subsequent effect on achievement- “goal-setting theory”- and at whether people are motivated to pursue a goal for the sake of learning and self-improvement or because they want to prove themselves to somebody-“goal orientation theory” (Victoroff, 2006).

Other theorists of the period were also growing increasingly interested in social context and its role in influencing motivational choices. For example, Berry in the year of 1980 explores how in a shared social environment, a person’s membership in one cultural group influences his/her motivation to interact with and immerse him/herself in the culture of another. While Tajfel’s “social identity theory” suggests that people derive their identities from, and therefore are influenced by, their interactions with others and with the social environment around them.

The “theory of reasoned action” also explores this idea of social context. It looks at how a person balances his/her own attitude toward a particular behaviour against the social pressure he/she perceives to act or not to act. This theory is carried one step further in the “theory of planned behaviour” which asks how a person’s perceived sense of control in a situation will influence his/her action. Also of considerable importance is Deci and Ryan’s development of self-determination theory put forward in the mid-eighties. Within this framework, we are able to explore the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in shaping motivation. Today research continues in most of these areas.

Compared to motivational psychology, the field of motivation research in language learning is a relatively new phenomenon. According to Dornyei, whose name appears regularly in this research, it really began with the work of Gardner in the early sixties. Together with Lambert, Gardener suggests a framework for understanding language learning motivation in which learners is motivated to learn a target language in differing degrees depending of this framework persists today and has shaped much of the existing body of research. One particularly influential aspect of Gardener’s theory has been the dichotomy between “integrative” and “instrumental” orientations in motivation. And while this dichotomy will be explored more fully in a later section, in short form it means that people are motivated to learn a language either because they want to integrate into the target language community or because they want to use the target language as a tool-or an instrument- to achieve some other linguistic goal as Gardner said in the year of 1985.

ConclusionThe subject of work motivation is one of the most crucial and significant now a day which play an important role in the overall development of the human being. Each and every motivation has a theory part to evaluate some valid points to provide some useful guidance to a specific task. With the help of this task someone can be bale to know about the motivation satisfactory in any section. The application of motivation use to satisfy employees in verities of ways. Some of them want the external results from the nature to act the entire motivation work. This nature has come from the brain of human system. Such theories are creating a great understanding in between the motivation group and the pathological group. This result has found so much information on intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation to motivate all other peoples with the help of increasing deep motivation. The main task can be seen to help the tasks within the risk analyzing invention (Teevan & Smith, 1967). Further having an explanation about the importance of a task by which it can able an explanation of motivation. Finally the task is to be done by which it can break the importance of any future task in the motivation section. So it is a good and positive step to achieve the goal of motivation from each and every client to remain the continuity of task. Overall the unit will help to meet the great understanding of motivation. Next this motivation will apply the needs of motivation into everyone’s life to achieve the targeted goal. It has also helped them to understand about the necessity of time and main improperness of situations. So the overview motivation shows the individual and interpersonal factors by which all simulate learners are able to know about an action. This chapter also describes about the creativeness of motivation and also examined them in this chapter including a suitable result. This chapter has also shown how to motivate the entire relationship in between the principle behaviour of modification and the motivation of learners (Tracy, 2013). Important cognitive aspects are motivated in this chapter to examine the importance the attribution of the entire motivation criteria. Finally this explanation will give so much success and failures to the students. Finally this chapter has examined the main impact of the teacher motivation and this motivation will distributed among the students. Students will also understand the needed motivation from the teachers and they will also modify the process and at last make a new implementation of motivation within their range of quires. But most of all they have to need to recognize the entire motivating process by which something can easily understood to learn the second process. This process must be identified with the help of human needs and powerful influence from the past experiences. The main guidelines are needed to be developed with the help of motivation environments to simulate all the learners to want the study. Motivation to enhance work performance is a broad extent a part of satisfaction itself. (Beaumont and Macomber, 1949)

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