Muscle Adaptations to Anaerobic Training

Muscle Adaptations to Anaerobic Training

Student’s name

Institutional affiliation

Muscle Adaptations to Anaerobic Training

Anaerobic training has to do with high-intensity training methods whereby the source of energy does not rely upon the use of oxygen. The number of sports and the sprinting, high-intensity training relies on anaerobic training to attain top performance. The body goes through a series of adaptations that have consistent anaerobic training, with virtually every system in the body affected. From the endocrine system to the cardiovascular system anaerobic training gives adaptations that are beneficial for high performance and good health. Worth noting, anaerobic training mainly focuses on anaerobic energy systems such as alactacid and lactic acid and getting physiological adaptations that benefit these systems. This text highlights the muscle adaptations to anaerobic training.

Hypertrophy is one of the adaptations through which anaerobic training boosts the size of muscles. Hypertrophy is achieved by optimizing the levels of actin and myosin, which are the proteins that facilitate the movement of muscles on a microscopic level. Anaerobic training inhibits the degradation proves and boosts the production of such proteins. This causes increased myofibrils levels, which are an additional component of the muscle cell. However, whether anaerobic training causes hyperplasia is still unknown. Hyperplasia is the increase in the number of muscle fibers and not the size as it would be hard to count it. The magnitude of muscle growth and protein synthesis depends on the nutrition, hormone receptor response, hydration, and training program (Sözen, 2018). A strategy which incorporates a combination of metabolic and mechanical factors tend to optimize hypertrophy. Mechanical factors such as eccentric actions, heavy loads, and low-to-moderate volumes. Metabolic factors main focus is putting stress on the glycolytic energy system that is said to take effect after 43 seconds of high volume and high-intensity activity with short periods of rest.

Fiber-type transitions are another muscle adaptation to anaerobic training. Essentially, the proportion of fiber types that an individual has is relatively unchangeable and is determined by genetics (Vermeulen, Plancke, Boshuizen, de Bruijn, & Delesalle, 2017). However, hypertrophy makes Type-II fibers to change into Type-I fibers. Additionally, hypertrophy makes Type II-x fibers to change and behave more like Type II-a which is viewed as the capacity to respond to low stimulus levels.

Architectural and structural changes are also muscle adaptations that take place during anaerobic training. Structural changes boost expression of strength and muscle function. Anaerobic training leads to increased density of cytoplasm, myofibrils, and activity of Na-K ATPase. It also ignites an increase in t-tubule density and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Two architectural changes influence how force is transmitted to bones and tendons. There is boosted muscle fascicle length and also increased cross-sectional area in the muscle fiber causing resulting in boosted pennation angle.

Decreased capillary and mitochondrial density are also additional muscle adaptations to anaerobic training. The gross number of capillaries and mitochondria stays the same however the density reduces due to hypertrophy. This means that the number of capillaries and mitochondria per muscle is low, but the total number remains the same as before hypertrophy. However, this does not affect aerobic performance due to the improved efficiency of capillaries and mitochondria. Raising buffering capacity is efficient for acid-base balance. One can buffer out lactic acid more faster. It is a by-product of the metabolic processes which is heavily depended upon during anaerobic exercise. This leads to delayed fatigue during exercise hence leading to opportunities for more longer and productive training sessions. Additionally, the overall muscle efficiency improves due to increased storage of glycogen, ATP, and creatine phosphate. Additionally, the enzymes which function by using the substrates in the metabolic processes are active and more, by extension, more efficient.


Sözen, H. (2018). The effects of aerobic and anaerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity. J Int Anatolia Sport Sci Vol, 3(3).

Vermeulen, R., Plancke, L., Boshuizen, B., de Bruijn, M., & Delesalle, C. (2017). Effects of training on equine muscle physiology and muscle adaptations in response to different training approaches. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 86(4), 224-231.

0 replies

Leave a Reply

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

Leave a Reply