Organized crime reaction essay writing exercise
The paper must be at least 500 words excluding the title page, abstract page, and reference page, and must adhere to the APA Sixth Edition writing format. Please review the APA Guide link under Resources. If your paper does not fully comply with the APA style and format you will lose points. Please cite at least one reference for your paper from the assigned website(s) in addition to other optional citations and provide in-text citations in the paper
Write a reaction paper to the controversial statement given below based upon the website viewed earlier (use the website listed below) this with this reference
“There is no such thing as organized crime because sources disagree on its definition. Abadinsky, H. (2020). Organized Crime (11th ed.). Cengage Learning US. https://reader2.yuzu.com/books/9781337026093
Organized crime—what is it? How can we distinguish organized crime from groups of criminals who, although they may be organized, do not fit the phenomenon we are addressing in this book? So what is it? What is organized crime? It’s not terrorism; it’s not street gangs—topics we will address later in this chapter. The “criminality of persons in organized crime differs from that of conventional criminals because their organization allows them to commit crimes of a different variety [labor racketeering, for example] and on a larger scale [smuggling planeloads of cocaine, for example] than their less organized colleagues” (Moore 1987: 51). Organization permits a scope of activities unavailable to conventional criminals, while providing a vehicle for criminal interaction and coordination on a regional, national, and international level. The criminal organizations examined in this book have historical origins that date back many decades, if not centuries. In contrast, as far as we know, the gang headed by Jesse James was devoid of global connections, their crime portfolio limited to bank and train robbery, and they failed to survive Jesse’s death in 1882. While there is a great deal of discussion about organized crime groups and their activities, a review of the subject in law enforcement and academic literature reveals it is difficult to determine what exactly is being discussed (Loree 2002). Indeed, the federal Organized Crime Act of 1970 (which contains the RICO section discussed in later chapters) fails to define the subject of its concern. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines organized crime “as any group having some manner of a formalized structure and whose primary objective is to obtain money through illegal activities. Such groups maintain their position through the use of actual or threatened violence, corrupt public officials, graft, or extortion, and generally have a significant impact on the people in their locales, region, or the country as a whole.” The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime (Article 2(a)) states that an “organised criminal group shall mean a structured group of three or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences established in accordance with this Convention, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefits.” Although there is no generally accepted definition of organized crime, there are a number of characteristics identified by law enforcement agencies and researchers as indicative of the phenomenon. Offering them has a practical dimension: they pro- vide a basis for determining if a particular group of criminals constitutes organized crime and, therefore, needs to be addressed in a way different from the way one would approach terrorists or groups of conventional criminals or a group of persons that forms for the immediate commission of a single offense.
■ Organized crime: Is devoid of political goals Is hierarchical
■ Has a limited or exclusive membership Constitutes a unique subculture Perpetuates itself Exhibits a willingness to use illegal violence
■ Is monopolistic
■ Is governed by explicit rules and regulations Let us examine each of these characteristics.
1. Absence of political goals. The goals of an organized crime group are money and power whose procurement is not limited by legal or moral concerns. An organized crime group is not motivated by social doctrine, political beliefs, or ideological concerns. While political involvement may be part of the group’s activities, the purpose is usually to gain protection or immunity for its illegal activities. This distinguishes organized crime from groups of persons who are organized and violating the law to further their political agenda, such as nationalist or terrorist groups. Organized crime members are not potential suicide bombers. Indeed, they typically find terrorism incomprehensible: Why would anyone take extreme risks without the prospect of personal financial gain? Why confront authorities instead of evading or corrupting them? (Bovenkerk and Chakra 2004). But a criminal group with a political agenda may metastasize into organized crime. A group whose primary goal is political or ideological may consider their mission no longer relevant and, rather than disband, become an organized crime group. A group, or simply some of its members, may find personal and pecuniary goals outweighing ideology and drift across the amorphous divide between political and organized crime, for example, groups in Northern Ireland supporting (loyalists) and opposing (republicans) British rule, or Marxist guerillas in Latin America. Like cars that can run on gas or electricity, a criminal organization may also be a hybrid; that is, combine pecuniary crime with ideologically driven Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter