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Help Write Measurement and Uncertainties Lab Report

 Help Write Measurement and Uncertainties Lab Report

Vernier Caliper

Micrometer Screw Gauge

Steel Rule

Etc

Shock Waves

The course paper assignment is a literature review based on a detailed analysis of a physics
topic within the scope of material covered during the semester. A list of topic ideas is provided
below. If you have your topic idea
The report must include at least five (5) primary references. These primary references
are to be peer-reviewed, primary-research publications, e.g., (.com websites, magazines,
newspapers, etc. are not permitted.). You may include additional non-primary
references once you have met this requirement.
A mathematical and physical analysis is not required; however, the paper must include
data, tables (if applicable), equations, pictures, etc. totaling the equivalent of no more
than one page

Einstein’s achievements in Physics

Instructions 

In 5-7 pages, summarize Einstein’s achievements in Physics. Harvard reference style, 4 sources.

Conservation of Energy – John Jewett

Conservation of Energy – John Jewett

Conservation of Energy – John Jewett wrote a series of five  papers in the journal of  Physics Teacher on how to teach conservation of energy. I have uploaded one of them. Read it and write at most a two-page report about the paper and try to address the following: the choice one has in choosing the system; the choice one has in choosing the time interval; the difference between the transformation of energy and transfer of energy; what do steady-state, isolated, and non-isolated mean; what are the types of energy transfers and the types of energy. Give an example of a scenario, e.g., you wake up in the morning, eat an energy
bar, climb a mountain, and write down the conservation of energy for that process. To illustrate the importance of time, you can compare it to another process: you wake up in the morning, eat an energy bar, climb a mountain, and walk back down the mountain, and explain how the addition of time (walking back down the mountain) changes the equation for conservation of energy.

Soft X-raySpectroscopy Assignment Questions

Soft X-raySpectroscopy Assignment Questions

QUESTION
The following questions refer to the (Soft X-raySpectroscopy)
a) Explain, with reference to experimental data, how sensitivity to a particular element can be
enhanced in XPS when using synchrotron radiation.
b) Explain, with reference to experimental data, how surface sensitivity can be controlled when
using synchrotron radiation
c) Synchrotron radiation provides a number of advantages over conventional laboratory light
sources used for ARPES, e.g. a noble-gas discharge lamp. Identify two properties of synchrotron
radiation that provide
an advantage and explain why they provide an advantage.
d) Describe the differences in HOPG NEXAFS spectra
obtained with at normal incidence and grazing incidence. Explain how thesedifferences arise.
Include a sketch that illustrates the geometry of theinteraction between the synchrotron radiation
and molecular orbitals.

Physics Lab Report: Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Physics Lab Report: Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Resistance Measurements

The resistance is identifying by the color code (Rcode). You can find the color code table and the figure example below.

Color Number Multiplier Tolerance
Black 0 1=100  
Brown 1 101  
Red 2 102  
Orange 3 103  
Yellow 4 104  
Green 5 105  
Blue 6 106  
Violet 7 107  
Gray 8 108  
White 9 109  
Gold   10-1 5%
Silver   10-2 10%
None     20%

2. Ohm’s Law

Equipment:                       

4          AA battery holder

4          AA battery (1.5 volts)

10        75 Ω resistors

1          DC analog ammeter

1          digital voltmeter

-Set up a DC series circuit with 75 Ω the Battery and the “wire wound” resistor provided.

-Connect an ammeter in series with the resistor and a voltmeter in parallel with the resistor.

-read the Ammeter and Voltmeter and Right down the value in First Row of Table.

 

Current I (ammeter value) Voltage V (voltmeter Value)
I = V =
I = V =
I = V =
I = V =

 

– Add Another battery in series to frist one and again try to read the numbers voltmeter and ammeter and write down the numbers in second table.

Batteries in Series

-repeat the experiment for 3 batteries and 4 batteries in series and for each situation read the value for ammeter and voltmeter and write down the value in 3th and 4th row of table .

-Plot V vs I. (V vertical and I horizontal) and find the slop of graph (Y4-Y1) / (X4-X1). this number should be close to 75Ω.

-Calculate the percentage error. (theoretical number is 75.

 

Physics Lab Report: Image Characteristic for Mirror and Lens

Physics Lab Report: Image Characteristic for Mirror and Lens

Image Characteristic for Mirror and Lens

Use the link below to find out the simulation that you need for part 1 and 2 of this experiment.

Click Here

Find out the image characteristic for each situation:

  1. Concave mirror do > 2f

do = 10            di = ………..   inverted or uprigh

ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual

Concave mirror do < f

do = 3              di = ………..   inverted or upright

ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual

Use the link below to find out the simulation that you need for part 3 and 4 of this experiment.

Click Here

Find out the image characteristic for each situation

  1. Convex lens do < f

do = 3              di = ………..   inverted or upright

ho = 1              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual

M = …………

Convex lens do > 2 f

do = 12            di = ………..   inverted or upright

ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual

M = …………

Image Characteristic for Mirror and Lens

Use the link below to find out the simulation that you need for part 1 and 2 of this experiment.

Click Here

Find out the image characteristic for each situation:

  1. Concave mirror do > 2f

do = 10            di = ………..   inverted or upright

ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual

Concave mirror do < f

do = 3              di = ………..   inverted or upright

ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual

Use the link below to find out the simulation that you need for part 3 and 4 of this experiment.

Click Here

Find out the image characteristic for each situation:

  1. Convex lens do < f

do = 3              di = ………..   inverted or upright

 

ho = 1              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual

M = …………

Convex lens do > 2 f

do = 12            di = ………..   inverted or upright

ho = 2              hi = ………..   Real or Virtual

M = …………

 

Physics Lab Report: Simple Pendulum

Physics Lab Report: Simple Pendulum

Simple Pendulum

Discussion and review

A pendulum is a weight hanging from a fixed point so that it swings freely under the combined forces of gravity and momentum. A simple pendulum consists of a heavy pendulum bob (of mass M) suspended from a light string. It is generally assumed that the mass of the string is negligible. If the bob moves away from the vertical to some angle θ, and is released so that the pendulum swings within a vertical plane, the period of the pendulum is given as:  T = 2π

Table 1: contents of Formula

symbol Description
T Period of a pendulum to complete one cycle
L Length of string
g Acceleration due to gravity: 9.81 m/s2

 

Part 1: changing the amplitude

Before beginning, find a solid support from which to hang the pendulum. Ideally, there should be a wall close to the support so the protractor and tape measure can be attached for recording the pendulum’s movements. A bathroom or kitchen towel bar is ideal for this purpose.

A support similar to that shown in Figure 3 can be constructed and placed on a narrow shelf or tabletop. It is important not only that the support allows the pendulum to hang freely, but also that you are able to read and record measurements from the protractor and tape measure. Do not allow the pendulum string to touch anything or be obstructed from any direction. The pendulum apparatus must also be sturdy enough so that it does not bend, flex, or move in any manner as this will introduce error into the experiment. See Figure 4 for an example setup with the pendulum bob hanging from an over-the-door hanger.

 

  1. Attach a small plastic bag to the spring scale.
  2. Add washers to the plastic bag until the scale measures approximately 25 g total. The filled bag will hereafter be referred to as the bob. Record this value as “Mass of bob” in the place provided in Data Table 1.
  3. Measure a piece of string that is approximately 120 cm in length. Tie the string around the top of the bag so that the washers cannot fall out. Suspend the bob from this string so that it measures exactly 1 m (100 cm) between where it attaches to the support and the bottom of the bob.
  4. Use tape to affix the protractor behind where the string is attached to the support so you can measure the pendulum’s amplitude in degrees. The center hole in the protractor should be located directly behind the pivot point. The string should hang straight down so that the string lines up with the 90o mark on the protractor. See Figure 4 as an example of the correct placement of the protractor.
  5. Stretch the measuring tape horizontally and use tape to affix it to the wall or door so that its 50-cm mark is directly behind the bob at rest.
  6. Displace the bob out to the 5o mark and hold it there. Then observe the bob’s location during its first cycle as it swings relative to the tape measure and record the distance in centimeters as “Amplitude (bob horizontal displacement)” in Data Table 1.
  7. With a stopwatch ready to begin timing, release (do not push) the bob and begin timing how long it takes the bob to move through five complete cycles. Record this first trial time in Data Table 1 for Trial 1. Repeat the procedure for the second and third trials. Then average the three trial times to calculate the average period for one cycle, and record this value in Data Table 1.
  8. Repeat this procedure, releasing the bobs at 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, and 30°, and recording the results for each of the angles in Data Table 1.

 

Length of string: _____ cm = _____ m          Mass of bob: _____ g = _____kg

 

Data Table 1: Trial values at varying degrees

 

Placement of Bob

Degrees

Amplitude (bob horizontal displacement) cm Trial 1 (s) 5 cycles Trial 2 (s) 5 cycles Trial 3 (s)

5 cycles

Avg. Time (s)

5 cycles

Period 1 cycle
5 o            
10 o            
15 o            
20 o            
25 o            
30 o            

 

IMPORTANT: The pendulum must swing without obstruction and should not strike the background as it swings.

Part 2: changing the mass

  1. Add more weights to the bag until the mass has doubled to approximately 50 g. Record this value as “mass of bob” in grams into the line provided next to Data Table 2.
  2. Repeat the procedure used in Part 1 using only a 10o amplitude for the starting point of the Record the data in Data Table 2.

Length of string: ________ cm = _______ m Amplitude: 10° 

Data Table 2: Trial values for bob masses

Bob weight (g) Bob weight (kg) Trial 1 (s) Trial 2 (s) Trial 3 (s) Avg Time (s) Period
g            
g            

Part 3: changing the length of string

  1. Remove the weights until the original mass used in Part 1 (approximately 25 g) is inside the bag. Record this “mass of bob” in grams into the line provided next to Data Table 3.
  2. Put the original bob containing the washers back onto the pendulum. Use a 10o amplitude and perform three trials each with successively shorter lengths of string. For example, 1 m, 0.75 m, etc. Record the time in seconds into the columns labeled “Trial #1, 2, or 3 s” in Data Table

Mass of bob: ________ g = _______ kg Amplitude: 10o

Data Table 3: Trial values for string length

Length (m) Trial 1 (s) Trial 2 (s) Trial 3 (s) Avg Time (s) Period
.25          
.50          
.75          

Part    4:         Calculations

  1. Solve the pendulum formula for g using the values derived from this experiment. Equation 3 will be used in calculating “g.” Substitute the average data for time and the length of the pendulum into the formula. Calculate to three significant figures. Then calculate your percentage error as compared to the accepted value for g, which is 9.81 m/s2. See Equation 4.

Equation 3:

Where:

  • g = acceleration due to gravity
  • t = time in seconds
  • L = length of pendulum string in meters

Note: If you get very large errors, such as 20% or more, in this lab, double-check your calculations.

Equation 4:

% error = experimental value – theoretical value × 100

theoretical value

 

Physics Lab Report: Reflection and Refraction

Physics Lab Report: Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and refraction are two commonly observed optical properties of light. Whenever a light strikes the surface of some material at an angle, part of the wave is reflected and part is transmitted (or absorbed). The reflection of light rays from a plane surface such as a glass plate or a plane mirror is described by the law of reflection:

The angle of incidence (θi) is equal to the angle of reflection (θr).

These angles are measured from a line perpendicular or normal to the reflecting surface.

  1. Reflection

Glass Plate as a Mirror

  1. Place a sheet of white paper on the pin board.
  2. Draw a center line on white paper and Place the candle in front of mirror. [mirror should be perpendicular to the white paper]
  3. Turn on the candle with a lighter
  4. Draw the line from candle to mirror (normal Line).
  5. Move your eye to the observing position so that you see a reflection of the candle in the mirror and try to put the dot on paper wherever you see the image. (right side)
  6. Repeat # 4 from left side.
  7. Remove the equipment from the paper.
  8. Draw straight lines through the pair of points
  9. Label the angles of incidence and reflection.
  10. Measure these two angles